S T A T E M E N T:
Little I can add in words can reconcile the profound effect that
the tragic events of September 11 has had on our lives. I do know that personally, my own internal
compass has been altered. Later that day, while at a local gas station I tried to relate to
another, unaware driver what I had seen on TV earlier that morning. His response was, "Well,
that just can't be right!" We all shared his disbelief.
The loss of life was enormous and a tragic injustice to us all…man,
woman and child. Lives were shattered. The tumult exceeded the imagination and emotional range
that we thought we were capable of. Our emotional, moral and humanitarian compasses, to name a
few, were spinning. Juxtaposed to this lost, or might I say stolen, innocence was an outpouring
of the greatest sense of humanity I know I personally have ever seen or felt, exemplified by
ordinary citizens, especially the people of uniform who have dedicated their lives to our well
being…police, fire, health care, postal, and of course, armed services. Our compasses point to
In our remembrances to the lives and the life that we knew before
9-11, a true rebirth in our sense of who we are individually, and collectively, who we are as a
country and as citizens of the world, based on the courage and compassion shown by our new heroes,
resonates with us all.
As a visual artist, my compass, too, was turned. Every artist deals with his/her world through
their art. This is at the essence of art…of being an artist. To deny the pain is to deny everything.
Do we not need singing, dancing, laughing…life!? Yes we do and yes we must!
My own feelings of sorrow and even melancholia sometimes resonated with the body of work I started,
at other times the whole question of dealing visually with the 9-11 tragedy ate at my innards.
The disarray was pervasive. Could working through this visually for myself be of any value to others?
I heard Garrison Keillor say it was the artist's duty to take something hard, painful, tragic and
transform it into something we can handle, something beautiful. Meaning of course that both now
and in the future we need a means to access and reflect upon the meaningful events in our lives.
Sometimes we have to realign our compasses.
My process was quite simple and straightforward once one realizes
that the 10 works in this series are actually the parts of the whole. In my efforts to respond to
the tragic events of 9-11, a number of issues…emotions…images relentlessly presented themselves,
and even competed with each other, to dominate my own personal handling of this most profound event
in our lives. I realized that similarly, no one image was ever going to encapsulate the whole
gamut of emotional response that often occurred simultaneously. Thus the work was conceived as
such… a charged, often conflicting and unsettling, emotional panorama…which was then deconstructed,
or divided out, into the 10 individual works.
Because of the radical new approach the computer allows, I actually
worked on all 10 works compositionally at the same time, copying, cutting, pasting, importing and
exporting masks and their object layers at will. Only after the 10-work body was compositionally
complete did I then work individually on each in the painting program. The conceptualization itself
was based on the constant torrent of imagery, emotion and response alluded to above.
Although the works were given a title only very late in the process,
the titles nevertheless explore a good part of my own emotional response. From: shattered and
tumult; to humanity, compassion and remembrance; to innocence and rebirth; to sorrow, melancholia
and disarray; the 10 titles were formed. Only after the works were completed and signed did I
thereafter go back into a copy of the digital file and explore some additional shadings of mood,
color and tone, and thus designating them all as variations one through five on each title.
On certain days one variation resonates more than another. I have made individual title montages
of each of the 10 titled pieces. Each of these has the larger title piece and the smaller four
variations. Lastly, I recombined all into the 11th work, 9-11, montage.
Reginald Brooks, February 7, 2002
Born in the San Francisco Bay Area and raised in Southern California, Reginald Brooks graduated from Oregon State University with a degree in general science in 1970. Before fully completing a MS degree in cell biology, he moved his young family to Portland to obtain a degree in Medical Technology. After five invigorating years as a medical research specialist he returned to his true love... the visual arts. Thus began a long career as a painter and sculptor with a strong interest in realizing and expressing the amazing world that we inhabit... with a considerable interest in seeing the world without borders...without the overt distinction between the aesthetic, interpretive view of the visual arts and the seemingly plain, yet nevertheless interpretive view of science. Writings on mathematics and physics, both his own and others, have formed the underpinnings of much of his work over the years. New media net.art... work created on and designed to be experience on a computer... has been a new and very exciting part of his output since 2001. This medium has provided a natural collaborative venue for separate media (white papers, prints, drawings, paintings, sculpture and animations) to come together to present a more complete immersive experience to a global audience. He has exhibited his paintings and sculptures in a number of solo (Portland) and group shows across the country.
Writings based on visual art, math, music and physics
- "LightspeedST: 1. 20 Questions"
Part 1 of the 5-part series. Twenty plus question examining the fundamental nature of SpaceTime (ST) and the role the constant "the speed of light" plays. Is there a connection?
- "LightspeedST: 2. 20 Answers"
Part 2 of the 5-part series. Twenty plus answers to the 20+ questions, framed in bite-sized chunks...the better to swallow and digest these tender new morsels. Lightspeed=ST suggests a new view of our Universe(s).
- "LightspeedST: 3. The Mechanics of SpaceTime (ST) ~A Portrait of SpaceTime~"
Part 3 of the 5-part series. Actually, this "Portrait of SpaceTime" was written first. (Actually...really...this is all based on L.U.F.E., the Layman's Unified Field Expose´ from 1985. See Links.) The goal: in the most concise and succinct manner...and always with an eye on simplification...lay out the case for tying together the quantum nature of light with the gravitational dependence of spacetime. LightspeedST Parts 1,2,4,and 5 quickly followed as the antidote.
- "LightspeedST: 4. The Movie Script"
Part 4 of the 5-part series. All text and no play doesn't mean anything more than the notion that every one's individual imagination will play out differently...because that is a good thing! And yet, there is something especially apropos about seeing the original intent...the roadmap to infinity. Don't miss this one! (IN PRODUCTION)
- "LightspeedST: 5. The Movie"
Part 5 of the 5-part series. As a visual journey, "LightspeedST: 5. The Movie" will quickly swoosh you...through moving images and text...up and over, down and through, the highlights of LightspeedST...leapfrogging @ the speed of light. (IN PRODUCTION)
- "LightspeedST: Links & References"
A quick References and Links page.
- "AFPOP: A Fresh Piece of Pi(e)...and the √2, too...Fractal - Fractal - Fractal"
"Circles and squares...as well as other geometric forms...have always been inter-related. Inherent in their geometry is the relationship of their linear elements to their areas...forming the basis of the Inverse Square Law (ISL), as formally presented in the Brooks Base Square (BBS) matrix. At their core, these geometric forms are based on three irrational, infinity-based numbers of proportion...π, √2 and φ...pi, the square root of two, and the golden mean. These core proportion-based relationships suggest that they may be acting as fractals in the formation of The Architecture Of SpaceTime (TAOST). Fractals of infinity.!"
"GoMAC: The Geometry of Music And Color, Parts II and III." How the natural, geometric divisions of the musical monochord and the color spectrum are inherently derived from the same universal law that informs how light, sound, electromagnetism, gravity...indeed, "The Architecture of SpaceTime" itself...behaves. That law is the Inverse Square Law (ISL) and it has a specific relationship to all the quantitative, whole integer numbers as shown in the Brooks (Base) Square matrix (BBS).
Part II of the three-part Geometry of Music And Art (GoMAC) series focuses on a visual journey of how the musical spectrum...and specifically the chromatic and diatonic scales...is based on the ISL.
A visual walk-through and summary of key concepts relating the ISL-derived Brooks (Base) Square, BBS, matrix with a geometrically derived division of both the musical monochord...resulting in the chromatic and diatonic major scale...and the color spectrum (as seen in GoMAC part III). Modulations around the Circle of Fifths and the Golden Rectangle are...key.
Based on "The Geometry of Music, Art and Structure...linking science, art and esthetics" white paper, "Geometry of Music And Color, I" new media net.art project, and the BBS matrix. Original soundtracks (A and B).
Part III focuses on a visual journey of how the color spectrum...and specifically the complementary colors of each hue, is based on the ISL.
A visual walk-through and summary of key concepts relating the ISL-derived Brooks (Base) Square, BBS, matrix with a geometrically derived division of both the musical monochord...resulting in the chromatic and diatonic major scale (part II)...and the color spectrum, in which color complements inside and outside of the 400-750 nm visible spectrum dictate the colors that we perceive.
- "Numbers of Inevitability ~Let’s do a number on that!~" Number relationships are like the best and worst...the highest highs, lowest lows...of the most significant human relationships you have ever known. When they are really wrong it really shows and pretty much everyone can see it. And, when they are right...really right...they seem, well, almost inevitable.
- "The Architecture Of SpaceTime (TAOST) as defined by the Brooks (Base) Square matrix and the Inverse Square Law (ISL)"
"The single most important concept to take from here is that not only is ST not rigid and static...indeed it is more like a fluid made of light, each quanta of which flashes on and off...pulse-propagates into and out of existence...at a frequency (and wavelength) according to its energy...and this fluid light ST unit resonates off a wave of energy at the peak of each pulse-flash...that wave, like a pond ripple, fans out to infinity (or the edge of the Universe...which ever comes first) where it is absorbed back into the sub-Planck event horizon (Singularity) to fuel the next round...communicating...passing on information...as to the location source and energy density...the amount and degree of its presence...its curvature...to every other ST unit throughout the Universe(s), BUT that the ST formation and curvature information propagation is informed, dictated and quantified by the matrix of BBS and the ISL...the bean counters par excellence!"
- "Brooks (Base) Square interactive (BBSi) matrix: Part I: BASICS" ~ This "BASIC" introduction to the matrix grid and the simplest, most fundamental pattern of the numbers that are formed from the main, Prime Diagonal are presented in a step by step fashion in five different interactive, multimedia formats. The Prime Diagonal is none other than square of the axial numbers (1,2,3,...) forming the core of the Inverse Square Law sequence (1,4, 9,...).
All the numbers...and their many exquisite patterns...are derived directly from the Prime Diagonal numbers. This is Part I. Part II will follow and will present some of the more interesting patterns.
The Inverse Square Law defines how a force or influence (like energy or light) falls off in strength as the distance is increased. It is one of the fundamental relationship laws of the universe effecting everything from gravity to electromagnetism. It can not but help to also be part of the spacetime fabric. It's part of "The Architecture Of SpaceTime" (TAOST).
- "Brooks (Base) Square (BS): The Architecture of Space-Time (TAOST) and The Conspicuous Absence of Primes (TCAOP) - the complete work (Rules 1-177)"
- "Brooks (Base) Square (BS): The Architecture of Space-Time (TAOST) and The Conspicuous Absence of Primes (TCAOP) - a brief introduction to the series"
The table of numbers that, while excluding the *prime numbers ... and only the *prime numbers ... reveals the number patterns that are primary ... primordial ... to the structure of the Universe.
This primordial matrix defines the Inverse Square Law (ISL) that informs gravity, light (electromagnetism) and atomic structure ... the underpinnings of that which we see as the observable Universe.
It is the architecture of space-time itself ... that which ultimately informs ... that is, reveals its disposition that in turn presents the physical laws, and their expression, of light, gravity and the structure of matter ... that fundamentally defines the true structure of the Universe ... seen and unseen ... encompassing all matter (light and dark) and all energy (light and dark). The ISL is a key relationship describing the interplay of space and time.
It is postulated here that the true underpinnings of space-time itself are inherently defined by numerical relationships ... numbers ... the numbers of Brooks (Base) Square (BBS).
- "GoMAS: The Geometry of Music, Art and Structure ...linking science, art and esthetics" ~ That simple geometric principles can be responsible for the
manifestation of the multitudes of beauty, diversity and richness of Nature is
further supported here in this paper. The Inverse-Square-Law (ISL), a simple
geometric principle, is shown to be the common link between physics, chemistry,
biology, and the science and esthetics of music and art. Nature has
incorporated the ISL as the major game rule to building the cosmos. Our
perception of pleasing form, color and sound is prophetically built into our
sensory being, our biologic evolution, and our structural past.
- "The Conservation of SpaceTime" ~The role of the Higgs, graviton and photon bosons in defining Dark Matter = Dark Energy (the inverse of) in the fractal Universe~
- "Quantum Gravity ...by the book" ~merging Quantum Mechanics with Gravity
- "The History of the Universe - update - 'The
Big Void'" ~A short, update supplement to "Dark Matter = Dark Energy (the inverse of): The Conservation of Spacetime by
The Conservation of Force" and "The History of the Universe in Scalar Graphics."
- "The Butterfly Prime Determinant Number
Array (DNA) ~conspicuous abstinence~" ~The role of the highly ordered positive space pattern of the
odd non-primes in revealing the reverse, negative space pattern of the primes as a determined number
array is revealed.
- "The Butterfly Prime Directive...~metamorphosis~". ~There is
a logic behind the ordered and predictable pattern of prime numbers.
- "Butterfly Primes ... ~let the beauty seep in~". An ordered and predictable pattern for the
prime numbers emerges.
- "The LUFE Matrix: E=mc2...and then some". The
focus is on energy. From Einstein's initial insight into the transformation between mass and energy, we now
have a large number of similar transformations between energy and the other fundamental parameters of
matter...i.e., charge and spin...and their activities within their space-time environments such as velocity
and acceleration, frequency and temperature, momentum, pressure and force, potential difference, heat and
work, etc. The original Preview-Review Slide Show "Can you say energy 10 different ways?" (see above),
included here, is now further enhanced with a showcase of select LUFE Matrix Supplement examples all
focused on the various forms that energy can take.
- "The History of the Universe in Scalar Graphics:
(Simultaneous Birth of Black Holes and the Inflationary Universe at the onset of the Big Bang"). A mostly
graphical supplement to "Dark Matter = Dark Energy (the inverse of): The Conservation of Spacetime by
The Conservation of Force.
- "The LUFE Matrix: Infinite Dimensions
~a room with a view...within a room with a view...within a room with a view~." A new, speculative
journey to account for the multiple dimensions that have informed The LUFE Matrix since its
introduction in 1985. FAQ-graphic format.
- "Dark-Dark-Light: Dark Matter = Dark Energy (the inverse of): The Conservation
of Spacetime by The Conservation of Force"
- "The LUFE Matrix: the distillation of SI
units into more fundamentally base units of space and time dimensions" (Short Title: "The
Multi-dimensional LUFE Matrix
- "The LUFE Matrix Supplement: Examples and Proofs"
- Part II below, from 2000, was
rewritten and recast for online publication as a three part series:
- Part 1: "PIN: Pattern in Number...from primes to DNA" A brief primer on visual
patterns found in simple, well known number systems leading into the remarkable number magic
and esthetic beauty of the DNA double helix (axial view) found in Part 2."GoDNA"and
continued in Part 3."SCoDNA".
- Part 2: "GoDNA: the Geometry of DNA (axial view) revealed"
Which came first? The self replicating underlying geometry or the form itself with its
dependence on enzymes, hydrogen bonding and a matching code of bases?
- Part 3: "SCoDNA: the Structure and Chemistry of DNA (axial view)"
Extending "GoDNA" into the realm of structural detail and chemistry forming the composite
- "The Geometry of Music, Art and Structure
linking science, art and esthetics,
Part II; self-published. The original material for this paper was presented (self-published)
at the 1997 solo exhibition at the Montage Gallery, Portland, OR under the title "Patterns
In Numbers: From Prime Numbers to DNA".
- "The Geometry of Music, Art and Structure
linking science, art and esthetics,
Part I presented at the Eighth International Conference on Engineering Computer
Graphics and Descriptive Geometry in Austin, TX, sponsored and published by the International Society
of Geometry and Graphics. The original material for this was presented at the 1996 solo exhibition
at the Montage Gallery, Portland, OR.
- "The LUFE Matrix: the distillation of SI units into more fundamentally
base units of space and time dimension" (Short Title: "The Multi-dimensional LUFE Matrix")
with supplement, paper, self-published
- "Fundamental Constants of Nature: Mass", paper, self-published
- "Fundamental Constants of Nature: Ratios", paper, self-published
- "Fundamental Constants of Nature: Charge", paper, self-published
- "Fundamental Constants of Nature: The LUFE Matrix", paper,
- "Mass Variation in the Electron by Photon Absorption & The Inverse
Square Law", paper, self-published
- "Expose on Music, Color and the Inverse Square Law", paper,
- "L.U.F.E.: The Laymans Unified Field Expose" (a visual guide),
R E S U M É
1970- BS General Science, Oregon State University
1972- MS Cell Biology-incomplete, OSU
1973- MT(ASCP) Medical Technology, Good Samaritan Hospital & Medical Center,
1978- Medical Research Specialist, Good Samaritan Hospital & Medical Center,
present- New Media=digital tools + IT + the internet
2008- Lara Sydney Framing Gallery, Portland, OR
2007- Urban Wineworks Gallery, Portland, OR
2007- Lara Sydney Framing Gallery, Portland, OR (2-Person Show)
2005- Lara Sydney Framing Gallery, Portland, OR
2001- Lara Sydney Custom Framing Gallery, Portland, OR
1997- Montage Gallery, Portland, OR
1996- American Institute of Architects/ Portland Chapter, Portland, OR
1996- Montage Gallery, Portland, OR
1995- Montage Gallery, Portland, OR
1992- Zero Square Gallery, Portland, OR
1989- Oregon Graduate Center, Hillsboro, OR
1989- Portland Community College, Rock Creek, OR
1988- Beaverton City Hall, Beaverton, OR
1987- Mt. Hood Community College, Gresham, OR
1987- Beaverton City Hall, Beaverton, OR
1987- Beaverton Chamber of Commerce, Beaverton, OR
2012-"AFPOP: A Fresh Piece of Pi(e)...and the √2, too...Fractal - Fractal - Fractal"
2012-"Sunspots and Solar Flares"
2011-"Brooks (Base) Square (BBS) interactive matrix: Basic (Part I)"
2010-"Brooks (Base) Square & The Inverse Square Law (ISL)"
2010-"The Geometry of Music Color"
2004-"Your sFace or Mine?"
2003-"Naughty Physics (a.k.a. The LUFE Matrix)
Group Exhibitions (select, nonprofit org.)
2012- 30th Annual Visual Arts Showcase 2012, Beaverton Arts Commission, Beaverton, OR
2012- CoCA's Members Show, Seattle Design Center, Seattle, WA
2012- Rhizome ArtBase, http://rhizome.org, "AFPOP: A Fresh Piece of Pi(e)...and the √2,
too...Fractal - Fractal - Fractal", New York, NY
2012- Rhizome ArtBase, http://rhizome.org, "Sunspots and Solar Flares", New York, NY
2011- 29th Annual Visual Arts Showcase 2011, Beaverton Arts Commission, Beaverton, OR
2011- Rhizome ArtBase, http://rhizome.org, "Brooks (Base) Square (BBS) interactive matrix: Basic (Part I)", New York, NY
2011- Carkeek Park Outdoor Art Exhibit, "Heaven and Earth 3: Cycles of Return",
COCA, Seattle, WA
2011- Maude Kerns Art Center, "Oregon Made For Interiors", Eugene, OR
2010- Rhizome ArtBase, http://rhizome.org, "Brooks (Base) Square & The Inverse
Square Law (ISL)" , New York, NY
2010- Rhizome ArtBase, http://rhizome.org, "The Geometry of Music Color", New
2009- Netart Features 2009, JavaMuseum, Cologne, Germany
2009- 27th Annual Visual Arts Showcase 2009, Beaverton Arts Commission,
2008- 26th Annual Visual Arts Showcase 2008, Beaverton Arts Commission, Beaverton, OR
2008- "Hollywould", 2008 Freewaves 11th Festival of Experimental Media Art,
2008- "Welcome the Rain Sculpture Contest", 1st Place Winner, East Multnomah
County Soil & Water Conservation District, Portland, OR
2008- All-Oregon Art Annual, Professional, juried, Oregon State Fair, Salem, OR
2007- 11th Int'l Conference on Information Visualization (IV07), July 3-7,
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland, DART gallery
2007- 4th Int'l Conference Computer Graphics, Imaging and Visualization (CGIV07),
August 14-17, KMUTT, Bangkok, Thailand, DART gallery
2007- "Pacific Northwest Art Annual 2007", Cultural Forum, U. of Oregon, Eugene, OR
2007- 2006[10th] Japan Media Arts Festival, Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of
Photography, Feb 24-Mar4, 2007
2007- "Allegories of the Genome", Vancouver, BC, Canada-online gallery-
2006- Rhizome ArtBase, http://rhizome.org, "Butterfly Primes...Prejudicial Numbers", New York, NY
2006- 10th Int'l Conference on Information Visualization (IV06), July 4-7,
University of London, London, England, DART gallery
2006- Int'l Conference Computer Graphics, Imaging and Visualization (CGIV06),
July 25-28, Sydney, Australia, DART gallery
2006- "ARTIFICIAL A.GENDER? new media online exhibition:tba
2004- Eurographics 2004, Art Show "Art and Science", Grenoble, France, 30 Aug -
3 September, 2004
2004- Rhizome ArtBase, http://rhizome.org, "Your sFace or Mine?", NY, NY
2004- "21 Years of Studios", Cathedral Park Place (invitational), Portland, OR
2003- Rhizome ArtBase, http://rhizome.org, "naughty physics (a.k.a. The LUFE
Matrix)", NY, NY
2002- Bellevue Sculpture Exhibition 2002, City of Bellevue, WA
2002- Rhizome ArtBase, http://rhizome.org, "Hey! U funk'n with my DNA?", NY, NY
2002- Net.Art, The Irish Museum of Modern Art,
2002- 20th Annual Visual Arts Showcase 2002, Beaverton Arts Commission,
2001- Net_Working, net.art, CHArt conference and Watershed Digital Cafe, Bristol,
2001- FILE_2001 (Electronic Language International Festival), net.art, Museu da
Imagem e do Som,Sao Paulo, Brazil, August 7th-September 2nd, 2001.
Online all year at: http://www.file.org.br
2001- Rhizome ArtBase, http://rhizome.org, "RealSurReal...aClone, 2001", NY, NY
2000- PICA, "Open Walls" (unjuried), Portland, OR
1997- Beaverton Showcase '97, Beaverton Arts Commission, Beaverton, OR
1996- Beaverton Showcase '96, Beaverton Arts Commission, Beaverton, OR
1995- Maude Kerns Art Center, "5th Sculpture Biennial", Eugene, OR
1995- Maude Kerns Art Center, Womenís Art Triennial, Eugene, OR
1994- Beaverton Showcase '94, Beaverton Arts Commission, Beaverton, OR
1993- Maude Kerns Art Center, "The Silent Child, Art as Healing", Eugene, OR
1992- Kinsey Gallery, Seattle University, Seattle, WA
1991- A.I.R. Gallery, "Choice"(unjuried), New York, NY
1989- Maude Kerns Art Center, "Icons and Idols, A Celebration of Ceremony", Eugene, OR
1989- Justice Center Sidewalk Gallery, Portland, OR
1988- Newport Visual Arts Center, "Nuclear Visions", OCCA, Newport, OR
1988- Beaverton Showcase '88, Beaverton Arts Commission, Beaverton, OR
1988- Annual Juried Art Show, Umpqua Community College, Roseburg, OR
1987- Beaverton Showcase '87, Beaverton Arts Commission, Beaverton, OR
1987- 17th Annual Willamette Valley Exhibition Corvallis Art Center, Corvallis, OR
1986- Northwest Artistís Workshop, "On the Job", Portland, OR
1986- Beaverton Showcase '86, Beaverton Arts Commission, Beaverton, OR
1985- Germanow Art Gallery, "Current Visions ë85", JCC, Rochester, NY
1983- Northwest Artistís Workshop, "Description/ Portrayal" (Invitational), Portland, OR
1983- PCVA, "Public Hanging" (unjuried), Portland, OR
1983- Arrowmont School of Arts & Crafts, "The Figure: New Form, New Function",
1983- "1st Annual Sherbrooke Intíl Painting Salon", Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
1981- PCVA, "Public Hanging" (unjuried), Portland, OR
1978- Northwest Artistís Workshop, "Salon de Refuses" (unjuried), Portland, OR
Past solo show theme titles (Paintings and sculpture):
"~breathe~ A Celebration of Women", 2008
"A Void", 2007
"Infinite Dimensions...without borders", 2005
"The E-P Series: digital-encaustic with scratchboard", 2001
"Dance Number Appendage: A Surrealistic Look At Patterns in Dance and Numbers", 1997
"Lucy:Contemporary Reflections on Paleonathropologic Findings",1996
"A Search for the Multicultural Mythology of Our Times", 1991
"The Geometry of Music, Art and Structure...linking the
esthetics of Art and Science" at the 8th ICECGDG (International Conference on Engineering Design
Graphics and Descriptive Geometry, sponsored by the International Society for Geometry and Graphics,
the Japan Society for Graphic Science, and the Engineering Design Graphics Division of the American Society
for Engineering Education; hosted by the College of Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin).1998.
Published in the Proceedings of the 8th ICECGDG, Vol. 2, pg 378, ISGG, Tokyo, Japan, 1998